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Analysis on the Application of UAV in Fire Fighting and Rescue
Release time:2018/10/23 18:48:50      Click on the number of times:1263

With the maturity of drone technology and the further expansion of aerial photography technology, our national UAV applications are becoming more and more extensive, including: photogrammetry, emergency response, public safety, resource exploration, environmental monitoring, natural disaster monitoring and evaluation, Urban planning and municipal management, forest fire pest protection and monitoring. At present, China's firefighting forces are facing increasingly complex firefighting rescue and social assistance situations. The limitations of traditional on-site investigation methods have become increasingly prominent for various types of earthquake relief, flood fighting and rescue, mountain rescue and large-span or high-rise fires. How to effectively implement fire warning and on-site detection, and to deal with disasters quickly and accurately is particularly important. The mature application of UAV application technology and system solutions in China makes the unmanned reconnaissance platform combined with video and infrared monitoring and transmission equipment, and conducts fire hazard inspection, on-site rescue command, and fire on complex terrain and complex structures through the air. Detection and prevention have become a new choice for firefighting forces.

First, the working principle of the drone

The unmanned aerial vehicle is a non-manned aerial vehicle operated by radio remote control and self-supplied program control device. It has the advantages of small size, low cost, convenient use and low environmental requirements, and integrates a wireless image transmission system. Autonomous control, flight planning and image transmission capabilities. As shown in Figure 1, the current commercial and military UAV systems can be divided into the following subsystems: ground command and control system, drone flight platform, aerial video surveillance platform, microwave wireless real-time image transmission system, GPS navigation and automatic driving. System, high-efficiency large-capacity lithium polymer power supply unit, 3G picture relay link, etc.

Second, the technical advantage of the drone

Thanks to the advanced flight control platform and front-rear video surveillance transmission system, combined with the perfect flight and ground support system, the drone can implement complete long-term air monitoring on the ground, thus achieving lower comprehensive cost to traditional means. Real-time monitoring and auxiliary rescue in areas that cannot be involved, its intelligence and advancement are prominently reflected in inspection route planning, intelligent analysis, fixed-point continuous monitoring, fire alarm, etc., and in the formulation of emergency plans, establishment of rapid response mechanism, on-site fire The important role of technical prevention measures in archival and evidence collection. Its technical advantages are:

(1) Maneuverable and flexible. Small drones generally have a weight of less than 100 kilograms. They can be controlled by flying controls, and only 1-2 people can complete such operations. In the case of poor roads and traffic interruptions, it is possible to carry them to the scene of a disaster accident on foot, and the conditions for taking off are very simple, there is no requirement for terrain, and the drone is convenient to carry, so it has great flexibility. In addition, the flying speed of the drone is easy to control, the turning radius is small, the maneuverability is good, the flight direction can be flexibly controlled, and the airborne camera can also track the subject; the drone can also quickly reach the designated location, and the reaction capability is fast, The environmental and climatic conditions are also very strong. The actual test during the “SCO” drills by the Zhejiang Fire Corps, the drones completed the flight under the 6th-level wind, and the conditions were limited by the rainy weather and other conditions than the large manned aircraft. The take-off condition requires only a few square meters of open space, and there are no prominent obstacles around. When working at low altitude, it is very limited by climatic conditions. The speed of obtaining images is very fast, and it can stably and reliably perform the detection function within 5 km.

(2) The vision is comprehensive. UAV can realize over-the-horizon control through broadband and data link technology, which has a comprehensive view. According to the needs of the site, it can work under different lighting conditions from different angles and different distances. It is possible to achieve global shooting of the target at high altitude, as well as adjust the distance and angle, and capture the key factors that are important for on-site decision making. By remotely controlling the drone and the camera, images can be acquired in real time according to actual needs, especially when flying at low altitudes, the drone has a strong ability to track and shoot, and the image acquired by the onboard camera has a high resolution (up to 0.1 m). If equipped with night vision functions such as thermal or infrared, the video will be more comprehensive. This way provides a powerful guarantee for real-time airborne monitoring of disaster accidents, and can effectively improve the detection capability of firefighting troops for rescue and rescue.

(3) Simple operation. From a technical point of view, the remote video transmission and control system of the drone is connected to the ground station through the network and the interface, and accesses the public network through the carrier fiber. Therefore, only the remote control camera and its auxiliary equipment (lens, pan/tilt) Etc.), you can directly watch the live video of the drone's camera. Usually, the user only needs to use the remote control to realize all the actions of the drone. The remote video transmission and control system can be used to see the scene at a glance, so as to realize remote and convenient all-round monitoring; when the client (including PC and mobile phone) is connected After entering the public network, users can control the drone through various forms of carriers such as PC, tablet or mobile phone. From the application level, the actual operation of the drone is not complicated. As long as the operation of flight, audio and video control and other compatible modules are mastered, the performance can be achieved.

(4) Safe and reliable. Whether faced with severe weather conditions such as heavy rain, high temperature, typhoon, mudslides, or serious accidents such as flammable, explosive, collapsed, poisonous, etc.; or extreme geographical environments such as mountains, canyons, gullies, drone technology can effectively circumvent traditional The short board that exists in the fire rescue operation ensures the safety of the fire officers and soldiers. And through the follow-up and tracking of the scene, it can provide a safe and reliable basis for the decision-making of accident handling, and can maximize the control of disaster development, reduce the loss of disasters, and reduce casualties.

Third, the application prospects of drones in the actual combat of firefighting forces

Combined with the actual needs of firefighting forces, the use of drones can solve the following four problems:

(1) Investigation of disasters. When a disaster occurs, the drone will be used for disaster investigation. First, the terrain and the environment can be ignored, and the investigation can be carried out flexibly. Especially in the case of some disasters that are difficult and dangerous, the investigation team cannot carry out the investigation. Ability to quickly launch investigations. Second, the detection of drones can effectively improve the efficiency of investigations, and the first time to identify the key factors of disaster accidents, so that the commanders can make the right decisions. The third is to effectively avoid casualties, which can prevent people from entering dangerous environments such as toxic, flammable and explosive, and comprehensively and meticulously grasp the situation on the spot. The fourth is the integrated detection module for detection. For example, integrated combustible gas detectors and toxic gas detectors can remotely detect relevant gas concentrations at the site of inflammable, explosive, and chemical accidents, thereby obtaining key information of dangerous parts; and integrating equipment such as temperature measurement and wind speed measurement, A detailed understanding of the environmental situation at the disaster site.

(2) Monitoring and tracking. The role of drones is not limited to disaster investigation. The scenes of various types of disasters faced by firefighting forces are often changing rapidly. In the process of disaster accidents, the use of drones for real-time monitoring and tracking can provide accurate disaster situation changes, so that the commanding departments at all levels can grasp the dynamic disaster situation in time. Thereby making quick and accurate countermeasures to minimize disaster losses.

(3) Auxiliary rescue. Utilizing drone integration or flexible carrying of critical equipment, it can help in many situations. One is to integrate voice and amplification modules to communicate instructions. The use of drones to achieve air shouting or relaying instructions can be more effective than ground calls or instructions, especially for rescue operations in high-altitude, high-rise projects, etc., using drones as carriers to effectively communicate key commands. The second is to open up rescue channels for rescue. For example, in water and mountain rescue, the existing throwing device has great limitations in use environment and scope, and the accuracy is poor. Utilizing drones to assist in throwing rope or carrying key equipment (such as respirators, rescue ropes, etc.) ), can create new ways for rescue, open up life-saving channels, and accurate and efficient. The third is to integrate communication equipment and use the drone as a communication relay. For example, in an environment where communications, mountains, and the like are blocked by communication, the UAV integrated transfer module is used as a temporary transfer station, thereby establishing a link for wireless communication in an extreme environment. The fourth is to use the drone for emergency mapping. Utilizing the UAV's integrated aerial mapping module, all the scenes of the disaster accident scene will be recorded and transmitted to the on-site command department to carry out emergency mapping of the terrain of the disaster site, which will provide strong support for the rescue. In this year's Sichuan Ya'an earthquake rescue, the rotary wing drone developed by the Shenyang Institute of Automation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences can carry 30 kilograms and played a huge role in search and rescue investigation.

(4) Auxiliary supervision. Use aerial photography to achieve comprehensive real-time monitoring of high-rise and super-tall buildings, timely detection of fire hazards, real-time fire control on fire scenes, building fire inspection or on-site fire image storage, and access to air surveillance video to other security or fire monitoring systems Support large-capacity long-term image storage and retrieval access, support remote viewing and control of some functions through smart terminals.

Fourth, the technical requirements of the UAV application in the fire department

In view of the actual situation of the disaster scene faced by the fire department, the use of the drone in the fire department should also meet certain technical requirements.

(1) Reliability. The various disaster scenes faced by firefighting forces, especially the fire scene, are more complex in application environment, and need to consider various environmental factors such as wind speed, smoke, temperature and waterproof. Therefore, the unmanned reconnaissance plane must first meet the harsh environment of the scene. Conditions of Use. The first is the ability to resist wind. Take the Zhejiang area as an example. The winds are mainly southeast and northwest, with 3-4 winds along the coast and 5-8 gusts. When flying near high-rise buildings, the instantaneous wind power may be close to 6-8, so its wind resistance To reach level 6 or above. The second is high temperature and explosion-proof capability. Since the drone uses a gasoline engine, the exhaust pipe has a spark, and the noise is large, the operation and maintenance are highly specialized, the running cost is high, and once the airplane is out of control, the potential fire, explosion, and the like are also hidden, so The aircraft platform is required to have a certain high temperature resistance. The third is the ability to prevent smoke. Due to the large amount of water mist and smoke at the scene of the fire, the unmanned reconnaissance aircraft is required to have strong resistance to water and smoke. The fourth is night vision ability. Due to the unpredictable time and environment of the disaster, it should be equipped with a camera with infrared night vision and an auxiliary light source is recommended.

(2) Maneuverability. Based on the average cruising speed of the 18km/h UAV, the patrol range is within the working radius of 2km, and the endurance requirement is up to 30 minutes for a single battery. The route inspection requirements can achieve uninterrupted monitoring. In addition, in terms of flight altitude, according to the survey, most of the flight accidents at the scene of the disaster are below 200 meters. Considering the highest height of the high-rise building, the flight altitude of 0 to 300 meters should meet the needs of daily on-site investigation.

(3) Stability. The image transmission of the drone should strive to be clear and continuous, so it has high requirements for wireless transmission and reception of images; it is easy to cause interference through wireless transmission, so the drone must have certain anti-interference ability, so as to achieve the use process. The image can be uninterrupted.

(4) Integration compatibility. UAVs have to implement many extensions in the application of firefighting forces and must have good integration and compatibility. Therefore, in terms of full load weight, considering the daily training and the maneuvering requirements of the equipped equipment, the unmanned reconnaissance machine needs to be able to reach the scene near the scene in a portable or vehicle, and the individual soldiers enter the site for mobile deployment, and expand the carrying equipment in an emergency, so the whole system is required to carry the weight. No more than 50 kilograms; in addition, in addition to video transmission, if other auxiliary functions are to be integrated and transmitted (such as voice, ranging, temperature measurement, etc.), this will inevitably require good integration and compatibility of the drone.

(5) rigor. If equipped with a drone, it is necessary to provide quality training for the operators. Therefore, a training evaluation mechanism must be formed to form the daily management and use mechanism of the drone. The operator must locate the position and determine the timing and personnel. A set of mature after-sales maintenance mechanisms must be formed by internal operators and external technicians and R&D manufacturers to ensure that the drones are in good normal use; education and education should be strengthened to make the use of drones more in line with civil aviation management regulations.

5. The mode of deployment of drones in firefighting units

From the application prospect of the drone in the fire department, its equipment mode also needs a certain degree of science.

(1) Large (middle) team level standards. According to the classification of urban fire station construction or the standard of the Iron Army squadron, the special service team can be equipped with single-handed piggyback drones, mainly for reconnaissance and short-distance cruises. Dismissed. Other large (middle) teams with heavy fire-fighting and rescue missions are selected according to the jurisdiction.

(2) Standards for detachment level. The detachment level is mainly equipped with an electric aircraft platform, and the cruising distance is long. It is mainly for investigation and auxiliary rescue. The emergency response should be dispatched with the detachment full-time command headquarters, and it should undertake the investigation and auxiliary rescue missions during the reinforcement of the city's jurisdiction and cross-regional reinforcements. .

(3) Standards for the team level. The main team level is mainly equipped with fuel drones, with long cruising distance. It mainly focuses on reconnaissance, monitoring and auxiliary rescue. With the headquarters' full-time command headquarters, it undertakes various tasks during the province's and cross-regional reinforcements.

With the further development of drone technology and its maturity in the use of firefighting forces, it will play an increasingly important role in the fight against various disasters. All levels of departments, especially firefighting forces, should fully recognize the important role of drones in firefighting and rescue, gradually deploy drones and actively play a role in better accomplishing various firefighting rescue and rescue missions.

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